The height of groundwater above the excavation bottom
is relatively small. (5ft or less)
The surrounding soil is relatively impermeable. (such as clayey soil)
A sump is merely a hole in the ground from which water is being pumped for the purpose of removing water from the adjoining areas.
They are used with ditches leading to them in the large excavations.
Shallow slopes may be required for unsupported excavations in silts and fine sands.
Gravel and coarse sands are more suitable.
Vacuum pumps are used to discharge the water.
Sumps, Trenches System
Sump pumps are frequently used to remove surface water and a small infiltration of groundwater.
Sumps and connecting interceptor ditches should be located well outside the footing area and the below the bottom of footing so the groundwater is not allowed to disturb the foundation bearing surface.
In granular soils, it is important that fine particles not be carried away by pumping. So the sumps may be lined with filter materials.
Cross Section for French drain
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